The Cairnmillar Gaming Research Group (CGRG) is dedicated to furthering the understanding of Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) or also known as Gaming Disorder (GD).

In brief, IGD/GD is a pattern of maladaptive gaming behaviours leading to significant impairment of various psychosocial (e.g., social and educational) domains. Recently, IGD/GD has captured the attention of researchers, clinicians, mass media outlets, and the general population from across the world. Major global health institutions such as the American Psychiatric Association and the World Health Organization as well as the international research community share the consensus that more research into IGD/GD is required.

Particular areas

As a result, our group aims to conduct research that investigates:

  1. IGD/ GD risk and protective factors (e.g., user-avatar relationship, personality traits, online flow);
  2. cultural variations considering the presentation of the behavior and;
  3. treatment modalities.

In that line our research aims to primarily inform effective IGD/ GD treatment, to contribute to the development of appropriate diagnostic instruments (e.g., through the application of advanced psychometric techniques, such as measurement invariance, latent class analyses and cross-cultural studies). A range of methods including cross-sectional and experimental designs, as well as longitudinal studies are employed.

Honours, Masters, and Doctoral research projects are available within all these areas.


To enhance our contribution to the field, collaborations have been established with international scholars and clinicians in the field. These indicatively include:

  1. Professor Mark D. Griffiths, Dr. Daria Kuss and Dr. Halley Pontes from the International Gaming Research Unit
  2. The Outpatient Clinic for Behavioral Addictions, Department for Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Mainz, Germany 
  3. Palo Alto University, US, Department of Psychology
  4. The Korean Advanced Institute of Science and Technology

Furthermore, the CGRG actively participates in the edition of a special issue on Frontiers in Psychology targeting the more reliable and valid assessment of IGD.


Group Members 

Cairnmillar Staff

Cairnmillar Students

  • Elwin Hu
  • Joel Pinched
  • Jason Lim How
  • Lauren Pennachia
  • John Rennie
  • Maria Morcos


Indicative Recent Publications

Stavropoulos, V., Burleigh, T. L., Beard, C. L., Gomez, R., & Griffiths, M. D. (2018). Being There: A Preliminary Study Examining the Role of Presence in Internet Gaming Disorder. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 1-11.

Burleigh, T. L., Stavropoulos, V., Liew, L. W., Adams, B. L., & Griffiths, M. D. (2018). Depression, Internet Gaming Disorder, and the Moderating Effect of the Gamer-Avatar Relationship: An Exploratory Longitudinal Study. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 16(1), 102 – 124.

Liew, L. W., Stavropoulos, V., Adams, B. L., Burleigh, T. L., & Griffiths, M. D. (2018). Internet Gaming Disorder: the interplay between physical activity and user–avatar relationship. Behaviour & Information Technology, 37(6), 558-574.

Stavropoulos, V., Anderson, E. E., Beard, C., Latifi, M. Q., Kuss, D., & Griffiths, M. (2018). A preliminary cross-cultural study of Hikikomori and Internet Gaming Disorder: The moderating effects of game-playing time and living with parents. Addictive Behaviors Reports. 10.1016/j.abrep.2018.10.001

Stavropoulos, V., Beard, C., Griffiths, M. D., Buleigh, T., Gomez, R., & Pontes, H. M. (2018). Measurement invariance of the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale – Short-Form (IGDS9-SF) between Australia, the USA, and the UK. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 16(2), 377 – 392.

Stavropoulos, V., & Hu, E. (2018). Mind Games. InPsych: The Bulletin of the Australian Psychological Society Ltd, 40(2), 40 – 45.

Gomez, R., Stavropoulos, V., Beard, C., & Pontes, H. M. (2018). Item Response Theory Analysis of the Recoded Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short-Form (IGDS9-SF). International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 1-21.

Adams, B. L., Stavropoulos, V., Burleigh, T. L., Liew, L. W., Beard, C. L., & Griffiths, M. D. (2018). Internet Gaming Disorder Behaviors in Emergent Adulthood: a Pilot Study Examining the Interplay Between Anxiety and Family Cohesion. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 1-17.

Pontes, H. M., Stavropoulos, V., & Griffiths, M. D. (2017). Measurement invariance of the internet gaming disorder scale–short-form (IGDS9-SF) between the United States of America, India and the United Kingdom. Psychiatry research, 257, 472-478.

Stavropoulos, V., Griffiths, M. D., Burleigh, T. L., Kuss, D. J., Doh, Y. Y., & Gomez, R. (2018). Flow on the Internet: A longitudinal study of Internet addiction symptoms during adolescence. Behaviour & Information Technology, 37(2), 159-172.